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Ethanol-to-butadiene: the reaction and its catalysts ...

Ethanol-to-butadiene: the reaction and its catalysts ...

After all, the relative simplicity of optimizing an ethanol dehydrogenation process to feed a subsequent reactor with the desired ethanol–acetaldehyde ratio 9,10 gives merit to this shortcut, despite the fact the hydrogen produced may participate in the reaction. Consequently, references to the two-step or the Ostromislensky process are to be ...

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Technological Innovations in Photochemistry for Organic ...

Technological Innovations in Photochemistry for Organic ...

Another reactor design that incorporates thin film generation is the rotating film reactor, introduced by Knig et al. This reactor consists of a rotating glass vial irradiated by 4 blue LEDs (455 nm, 28.1 mWcm –2) placed on an aluminum frame around the vial (Figure 14C). The reactor was operated in batch mode by rotating the vial with a ...

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ACS Sustainable Chemistry Engineering Vol 9 No 49

ACS Sustainable Chemistry Engineering Vol 9 No 49

Dec 13, 2021 The development of novel and efficient heterogeneous catalysts plays a crucial role in biomass utilization; insights into developing prospects of the metal/heteroatom-doped carbon catalysts in biomass hydrodeoxygenation applications are highlighted, and distinctive viewpoints on heteroatom doping mechanisms are presented in this Perspective. View the article.

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Bioethanol Production from Renewable Raw Materials and Its ...

Bioethanol Production from Renewable Raw Materials and Its ...

However, solvents need to be drained from the reactor, evaporated, condensed and recycled, which makes the pretreatment costs relatively high. Organosolv extraction of sugarcane bagasse under optimized conditions (30% by volume ethanol at 195 C for 60 min) results in the production of 29.1% by mass of fermentable sugars .

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Lignocellulosic biomass: a sustainable platform for the ...

Lignocellulosic biomass: a sustainable platform for the ...

In this consideration, decarboxylation of GVL derived pentenoic acids on a SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 catalyst at 375 C results in the formation of butene isomers, including 1-butene (1-B). 121 In fact, GVL ring opening on acid catalysts at high temperatures first gives an isomeric mixture of pentenoic acid, and subsequently, an isomeric mixture of ...

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Furfural - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Furfural - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

In this reactor, the biomass is ... reductive amination to amines, reduction to alcohols, decarboxylation, oxidation to carboxylic acids, Grignard reactions and aldol and Knoevenagel condensation can occur in furfural through the aldehyde functional group. ... Furfuryl alcohol, when boiled in ethyl methyl ketone in the presence of HCl, gives ...

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Scale-Up of a Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation ...

Scale-Up of a Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation ...

In this section, the batch reactor and the pRS-SDR are compared to other reactor types for the TiO 2-enabled photodegradation of MB. Table 1 gives an overview of the reactor types, conditions, and performance of these reactors. Our work is compared to two reactor types using an immobilized photocatalyst and two reactor types operated under ...

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Pyrolysis: A Sustainable Way to Generate Energy from Waste ...

Pyrolysis: A Sustainable Way to Generate Energy from Waste ...

Oct 15, 2016 Conversely, pyrolysis under vacuum gives little char and gives more liquid fractions. For pyrolysis under pressure, moisture in the vapour phase can systematically upsurge the production of carbon. Because, in that case water is acting as catalyst by reducing the activation energy for pyrolysis reactions [ 46 ].The gas flow rate significantly ...

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Renewable bio-jet fuel production for ... - ScienceDirect

Renewable bio-jet fuel production for ... - ScienceDirect

Oct 15, 2019 The process is generally divided into two steps. The first step is converting unsaturated fatty acids and triglycerides into saturated fatty acid by catalytic hydrogenation, the triglycerides occur a β-hydrogen elimination reaction to yield a fatty acid during the process .The saturated fatty acid is converted to C 15 –C 18 straight chain alkanes by hydrodeoxygenation …

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Terephthalic acid - Wikipedia

Terephthalic acid - Wikipedia

Terephthalic acid is an organic compound with formula C 6 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2.This white solid is a commodity chemical, used principally as a precursor to the polyester PET, used to make clothing and plastic bottles.Several million tonnes are produced annually. The common name is derived from the turpentine-producing tree Pistacia terebinthus and phthalic acid

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Biology Question Bank For Highschool Heat Capacity ...

Biology Question Bank For Highschool Heat Capacity ...

The process is known as (a) decarboxylation (b) dehydrogenation (c) deamination (d) carboxylation 55. Despite high level of heterozygosity, the progeny derived from seed of a cross pollinated plant was found to be c o m p l e t e l y u n i f o r m .

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